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Referencing, Citation and Plagiarism: APA, MLA and Chicago: 3 Popular Citation Styles


Below are some resources with information on how to format your work in the three most common citation styles used at North Island College (APA, MLA and Chicago). Note: Confirm with your instructor which citation style to use. Additionally, use this downloadable Citation Style Chart from OWL Purdue to compare all three styles.

APA Style Resources

Developed by the American Psychological Association, the APA citation style is one of the most popular referencing formats and is often used in the Social Sciences.


APA Web Links
APA Books
APA Referencing and Formatting: More Examples

MLA Style Resources (Based on the 8th Edition)

The Modern Language Association (MLA) style is most commonly used to write papers and cite references within the Liberal Arts and Humanities.


MLA Web Links
MLA Books

For a complete list of style rules, consult the MLA Handbook. There are copies in the Reference Collection.

Major Changes in MLA 8th Edition
  • If a core element does not exist or cannot be found, simply omit the element from the Works Cited entry. Placeholders including "n.d." for "no date" and "n.p." for "no publisher" are no longer used.
  • For sources with three or more authors, list the first author's name followed by ", et al.".
  • The city of publication for books is no longer included.
  • Journal volumes and issues are now formatted: "vol. 12, no. 3,".
  • If a journal issue includes a publication month or season include that in the publication date, like: "Spring 2016," or "Jan. 2016,".
  • If an organization is both the author and the publisher, list the organization only once as the publisher and begin the citation with the title.
  • Include a DOI (digital object identifier) when available using the format "doi:############." If a DOI is not available, use a stable URL.
  • The URL, without http:// or https://, should be included for Web sources. Angle brackets are no longer used.
  • The source's medium (Print. Web., etc.) is no longer included.
  • In the Works Cited entry, "p." is used before citing a page number and "pp." is used before citing a page range. These are not used in the in-text citation.

Chicago Style Resources

The Chicago citation style is often used for works in the Humanities and Sciences, with slightly different formatting requirements depending on the discipline.


Chicago Web Links

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